Depression, anxiety and panic disorders can be very debilitating; they can affect peoples’ livelihoods and physical health. They are also very common. Treatment usually involves psychological therapies and medications. One of the psychotherapies used to help people with these conditions is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Its goal is to teach people more helpful ways of thinking about issues that come up in their lives.
The idea is that by practicing the mental strategies CBT teaches, people with depression or anxiety or panic disorders will be able to cope with difficulties better. However, the association between CBT and long-term mental health outcomes is not well understood. So investigators at The Pennsylvania State University looked at how the coping strategies taught in CBT affected patients' mental health outcomes over almost two decades.
“I was interested in understanding the link between coping strategies therapists usually equip their clients with in eight to 16 sessions, and the risk of people experiencing common mental health issues over a long period of time,” Hani Zainal, corresponding author on the study, told TheDoctor.
Cultivating persistence, optimism and resilience can be good for mental health.
The researchers looked at mental health data of nearly 3300 adults from the Midlife Development in the United States dataset. Participants' responses were collected in three “waves” over 18 years — in 1995-96; in 2004-2005; and in 2012-2013. The average age of participants was 45.6 years; 89 percent were white; and 42 percent were college-educated.
People in the study were asked to rate their own abilities in goal persistence, self-mastery and positive reappraisal. They were also evaluated for symptoms of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.
Those who reported greater goal persistence during the first wave of data collection in the mid-90s, and those who said they maintained a sense of optimism, were less likely than others to develop depression, anxiety or a panic disorder over the 18-year study period. Unsurprisingly, people who had fewer mental health issues at the beginning of the study were more persistent in trying to achieve their goals and also tended to be more optimistic.
Giving up may offer temporary emotional relief, but the resulting disappointment and regret can increase the risk of setbacks.
Unlike the findings of previous studies, self-mastery had no effect on participants’ mental health during the 18-year period. That finding was surprising, said Michelle Newman, co-author on the study and a professor of psychology and psychiatry at Penn State. This could have been because self-mastery is a relatively stable part of a person’s character, so participants’ use of self-mastery would not easily change over time.
The findings may have implications in clinical practice for patients with depression, anxiety and panic disorders, Newman and Zainal believe. “Therapists can help patients understand the vicious cycle caused by giving up personal and professional aspirations,” said Zainal. Reconsidering and adjusting your goals can be the right thing to do at times, but faith in persistence is still important. “Boosting patients’ optimism and resilience by committing to a specific course of action to make dreams come true despite obstacles can lead to a better mood and a sense of purpose.” Giving up may offer temporary emotional relief, but the resulting disappointment and regret can increase the risk of setbacks.
The study is published in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology.